Diabetes Mellitus



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It is going over Diabetes Mellitus. We are going to post the example nursing exam or NCLEX style questions individually as soon as we are done editing them! I will send you an email when we post them!
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– Caroline

I would like to thank the video contributors:
Rizalyn Joy Gadugdug
Maria Salvacion Gonzales
Yasmin Hashmi
Artem Shestakov
And Babar Hayatrana

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Metabolic disorders that are associated with a high blood sugar and glucose are collectively known as Diabetes Mellitus which you will see abbreviated as: DM. Reasons for high sugar level can be too little insulin produced by the body or the body cells can not respond to insulin properly or it can be both.
Most of the ingested food is broken down into a sugar known as glucose which then goes to the bloodstream and acts as the major source of energy in the body. It allows the body cells to grow and sustain. But in order to enter the cells, glucose needs a hormone known as insulin which is produced by the pancreas.
Every time we eat and food is broken down into glucose, pancreas react by producing insulin according to the level of glucose in the blood. Insulin then carries the glucose from the blood into different cells around the body, reducing the level of glucose in the bloodstream. Generally, concentration of glucose in the blood fluctuates between 70-110 mg/dL in a normal individual.
Diabetes mellitus occurs when the pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin, or the cells do not respond to insulin; in both cases glucose stays in the bloodstream due to which not only the level of blood glucose stays high but also cells do not receive sufficient glucose. These conditions manifest symptoms of Diabetes mellitus. Initially, cells lack sufficient fuel to sustain but prolonged high blood sugar results in organ failure, in which major organs such as heart, kidneys, eyes, nerve cells and blood vessels stop functioning.

There are 3 types of Diabetes Mellitus:
1. Type 1 Diabetes: is when pancreas cannot produce sufficient insulin. This type of DM is considered an autoimmune condition, as the patient’s body destroys its own beta cells in the pancreas that are responsible for the production of insulin. As pancreas is unable to produce insulin, type 1 DM is managed by injecting insulin to maintain a normal blood sugar level; which is why in the past it was known as insulin-dependent diabetes. About 15% of diabetic patients have type 1 DM.

2. Type 2 Diabetes: is when the cells do not respond to insulin properly, leading to what is called insulin resistance.

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